zipfile --- 在 ZIP 归档中工作

源代码: Lib/zipfile.py


ZIP 文件格式是一个常用的归档与压缩标准。 这个模块提供了创建、读取、写入、添加及列出 ZIP 文件的工具。 任何对此模块的进阶使用都将需要理解此格式,其定义参见 PKZIP 应用程序笔记

此模块目前不能处理分卷 ZIP 文件。它可以处理使用 ZIP64 扩展(超过 4 GB 的 ZIP 文件)的 ZIP 文件。它支持解密 ZIP 归档中的加密文件,但是目前不能创建一个加密的文件。解密非常慢,因为它是使用原生 Python 而不是 C 实现的。

这个模块定义了以下内容:

exception zipfile.BadZipFile

为损坏的 ZIP 文件抛出的错误。

3.2 新版功能.

exception zipfile.BadZipfile

BadZipFile 的别名,与旧版本 Python 保持兼容性。

3.2 版后已移除.

exception zipfile.LargeZipFile

当 ZIP 文件取药 ZIP64 功能但是未启用时抛出此错误。

class zipfile.ZipFile

用于读写 ZIP 文件的类。 欲了解构造函数的描述,参阅段落 ZipFile 对象

class zipfile.PyZipFile

用于创建包含 Python 库的 ZIP 归档的类。

class zipfile.ZipInfo(filename='NoName', date_time=(1980, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0))

用于表示档案内一个成员信息的类。 此类的实例会由 ZipFile 对象的 getinfo()infolist() 方法返回。 大多数 zipfile 模块的用户都不必创建它们,只需使用此模块所创建的实例。 filename 应当是档案成员的全名,date_time 应当是包含六个字段的描述最近修改时间的元组;这些字段的描述请参阅 ZipInfo Objects

zipfile.is_zipfile(filename)

根据文件的 Magic Number,如果 filename 是一个有效的 ZIP 文件则返回 True,否则返回 Falsefilename 也可能是一个文件或类文件对象。

在 3.1 版更改: 支持文件或类文件对象。

zipfile.ZIP_STORED

未被压缩的归档成员的数字常数。

zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED

常用的 ZIP 压缩方法的数字常数。需要 zlib 模块。

zipfile.ZIP_BZIP2

BZIP2 压缩方法的数字常数。需要 bz2 模块。

3.3 新版功能.

zipfile.ZIP_LZMA

LZMA 压缩方法的数字常数。需要 lzma 模块。

3.3 新版功能.

注解

ZIP 文件格式规范包括自 2001 年以来对 bzip2 压缩的支持,以及自 2006 年以来对 LZMA 压缩的支持。但是,一些工具(包括较旧的 Python 版本)不支持这些压缩方法,并且可能拒绝完全处理 ZIP 文件,或者无法提取单个文件。

参见

PKZIP 应用程序笔记
Phil Katz 编写的 ZIP 文件格式文档,此格式和使用的算法的创建者。
Info-ZIP 主页
有关 Info-ZIP 项目的 ZIP 存档程序和开发库的信息。

ZipFile 对象

class zipfile.ZipFile(file, mode='r', compression=ZIP_STORED, allowZip64=True, compresslevel=None)

打开一个 ZIP 文件,file 为一个指向文件的路径(字符串),一个类文件对象或者一个 path-like object

形参 mode 应当为 'r' 来读取一个存在的文件,'w' 来截断并写入新的文件, 'a' 来添加到一个存在的文件,或者 'x' 来仅新建并写入新的文件。如果 mode'x' 并且 file 指向已经存在的文件,则抛出 FileExistsError。如果 mode'a'file 为已存在的文件,则格外的文件将被加入。如果 file 不指向 ZIP 文件,之后一个新的 ZIP 归档将被追加为此文件。这是为了将 ZIP 归档添加到另一个文件(例如 python.exe)。如果 mode'a' 并且文件不存在, 则会新建。如果 mode'r''a', 则文件应当可定位。

compression is the ZIP compression method to use when writing the archive, and should be ZIP_STORED, ZIP_DEFLATED, ZIP_BZIP2 or ZIP_LZMA; unrecognized values will cause NotImplementedError to be raised. If ZIP_DEFLATED, ZIP_BZIP2 or ZIP_LZMA is specified but the corresponding module (zlib, bz2 or lzma) is not available, RuntimeError is raised. The default is ZIP_STORED.

If allowZip64 is True (the default) zipfile will create ZIP files that use the ZIP64 extensions when the zipfile is larger than 4 GiB. If it is false zipfile will raise an exception when the ZIP file would require ZIP64 extensions.

The compresslevel parameter controls the compression level to use when writing files to the archive. When using ZIP_STORED or ZIP_LZMA it has no effect. When using ZIP_DEFLATED integers 0 through 9 are accepted (see zlib for more information). When using ZIP_BZIP2 integers 1 through 9 are accepted (see bz2 for more information).

If the file is created with mode 'w', 'x' or 'a' and then closed without adding any files to the archive, the appropriate ZIP structures for an empty archive will be written to the file.

ZipFile is also a context manager and therefore supports the with statement. In the example, myzip is closed after the with statement's suite is finished---even if an exception occurs:

with ZipFile('spam.zip', 'w') as myzip:
    myzip.write('eggs.txt')

3.2 新版功能: Added the ability to use ZipFile as a context manager.

在 3.3 版更改: Added support for bzip2 and lzma compression.

在 3.4 版更改: ZIP64 extensions are enabled by default.

在 3.5 版更改: Added support for writing to unseekable streams. Added support for the 'x' mode.

在 3.6 版更改: Previously, a plain RuntimeError was raised for unrecognized compression values.

在 3.6.2 版更改: The file parameter accepts a path-like object.

在 3.7 版更改: Add the compresslevel parameter.

ZipFile.close()

Close the archive file. You must call close() before exiting your program or essential records will not be written.

ZipFile.getinfo(name)

Return a ZipInfo object with information about the archive member name. Calling getinfo() for a name not currently contained in the archive will raise a KeyError.

ZipFile.infolist()

Return a list containing a ZipInfo object for each member of the archive. The objects are in the same order as their entries in the actual ZIP file on disk if an existing archive was opened.

ZipFile.namelist()

Return a list of archive members by name.

ZipFile.open(name, mode='r', pwd=None, *, force_zip64=False)

Access a member of the archive as a binary file-like object. name can be either the name of a file within the archive or a ZipInfo object. The mode parameter, if included, must be 'r' (the default) or 'w'. pwd is the password used to decrypt encrypted ZIP files.

open() is also a context manager and therefore supports the with statement:

with ZipFile('spam.zip') as myzip:
    with myzip.open('eggs.txt') as myfile:
        print(myfile.read())

With mode 'r' the file-like object (ZipExtFile) is read-only and provides the following methods: read(), readline(), readlines(), seek(), tell(), __iter__(), __next__(). These objects can operate independently of the ZipFile.

With mode='w', a writable file handle is returned, which supports the write() method. While a writable file handle is open, attempting to read or write other files in the ZIP file will raise a ValueError.

When writing a file, if the file size is not known in advance but may exceed 2 GiB, pass force_zip64=True to ensure that the header format is capable of supporting large files. If the file size is known in advance, construct a ZipInfo object with file_size set, and use that as the name parameter.

注解

The open(), read() and extract() methods can take a filename or a ZipInfo object. You will appreciate this when trying to read a ZIP file that contains members with duplicate names.

在 3.6 版更改: Removed support of mode='U'. Use io.TextIOWrapper for reading compressed text files in universal newlines mode.

在 3.6 版更改: open() can now be used to write files into the archive with the mode='w' option.

在 3.6 版更改: Calling open() on a closed ZipFile will raise a ValueError. Previously, a RuntimeError was raised.

ZipFile.extract(member, path=None, pwd=None)

Extract a member from the archive to the current working directory; member must be its full name or a ZipInfo object. Its file information is extracted as accurately as possible. path specifies a different directory to extract to. member can be a filename or a ZipInfo object. pwd is the password used for encrypted files.

Returns the normalized path created (a directory or new file).

注解

If a member filename is an absolute path, a drive/UNC sharepoint and leading (back)slashes will be stripped, e.g.: ///foo/bar becomes foo/bar on Unix, and C:\foo\bar becomes foo\bar on Windows. And all ".." components in a member filename will be removed, e.g.: ../../foo../../ba..r becomes foo../ba..r. On Windows illegal characters (:, <, >, |, ", ?, and *) replaced by underscore (_).

在 3.6 版更改: Calling extract() on a closed ZipFile will raise a ValueError. Previously, a RuntimeError was raised.

在 3.6.2 版更改: The path parameter accepts a path-like object.

ZipFile.extractall(path=None, members=None, pwd=None)

Extract all members from the archive to the current working directory. path specifies a different directory to extract to. members is optional and must be a subset of the list returned by namelist(). pwd is the password used for encrypted files.

警告

Never extract archives from untrusted sources without prior inspection. It is possible that files are created outside of path, e.g. members that have absolute filenames starting with "/" or filenames with two dots "..". This module attempts to prevent that. See extract() note.

在 3.6 版更改: Calling extractall() on a closed ZipFile will raise a ValueError. Previously, a RuntimeError was raised.

在 3.6.2 版更改: The path parameter accepts a path-like object.

ZipFile.printdir()

Print a table of contents for the archive to sys.stdout.

ZipFile.setpassword(pwd)

Set pwd as default password to extract encrypted files.

ZipFile.read(name, pwd=None)

Return the bytes of the file name in the archive. name is the name of the file in the archive, or a ZipInfo object. The archive must be open for read or append. pwd is the password used for encrypted files and, if specified, it will override the default password set with setpassword(). Calling read() on a ZipFile that uses a compression method other than ZIP_STORED, ZIP_DEFLATED, ZIP_BZIP2 or ZIP_LZMA will raise a NotImplementedError. An error will also be raised if the corresponding compression module is not available.

在 3.6 版更改: Calling read() on a closed ZipFile will raise a ValueError. Previously, a RuntimeError was raised.

ZipFile.testzip()

Read all the files in the archive and check their CRC's and file headers. Return the name of the first bad file, or else return None.

在 3.6 版更改: Calling testzip() on a closed ZipFile will raise a ValueError. Previously, a RuntimeError was raised.

ZipFile.write(filename, arcname=None, compress_type=None, compresslevel=None)

Write the file named filename to the archive, giving it the archive name arcname (by default, this will be the same as filename, but without a drive letter and with leading path separators removed). If given, compress_type overrides the value given for the compression parameter to the constructor for the new entry. Similarly, compresslevel will override the constructor if given. The archive must be open with mode 'w', 'x' or 'a'.

注解

Archive names should be relative to the archive root, that is, they should not start with a path separator.

注解

If arcname (or filename, if arcname is not given) contains a null byte, the name of the file in the archive will be truncated at the null byte.

在 3.6 版更改: Calling write() on a ZipFile created with mode 'r' or a closed ZipFile will raise a ValueError. Previously, a RuntimeError was raised.

ZipFile.writestr(zinfo_or_arcname, data, compress_type=None, compresslevel=None)

Write a file into the archive. The contents is data, which may be either a str or a bytes instance; if it is a str, it is encoded as UTF-8 first. zinfo_or_arcname is either the file name it will be given in the archive, or a ZipInfo instance. If it's an instance, at least the filename, date, and time must be given. If it's a name, the date and time is set to the current date and time. The archive must be opened with mode 'w', 'x' or 'a'.

If given, compress_type overrides the value given for the compression parameter to the constructor for the new entry, or in the zinfo_or_arcname (if that is a ZipInfo instance). Similarly, compresslevel will override the constructor if given.

注解

When passing a ZipInfo instance as the zinfo_or_arcname parameter, the compression method used will be that specified in the compress_type member of the given ZipInfo instance. By default, the ZipInfo constructor sets this member to ZIP_STORED.

在 3.2 版更改: The compress_type argument.

在 3.6 版更改: Calling writestr() on a ZipFile created with mode 'r' or a closed ZipFile will raise a ValueError. Previously, a RuntimeError was raised.

The following data attributes are also available:

ZipFile.filename

Name of the ZIP file.

ZipFile.debug

The level of debug output to use. This may be set from 0 (the default, no output) to 3 (the most output). Debugging information is written to sys.stdout.

ZipFile.comment

The comment associated with the ZIP file as a bytes object. If assigning a comment to a ZipFile instance created with mode 'w', 'x' or 'a', it should be no longer than 65535 bytes. Comments longer than this will be truncated.

PyZipFile Objects

The PyZipFile constructor takes the same parameters as the ZipFile constructor, and one additional parameter, optimize.

class zipfile.PyZipFile(file, mode='r', compression=ZIP_STORED, allowZip64=True, optimize=-1)

3.2 新版功能: The optimize parameter.

在 3.4 版更改: ZIP64 extensions are enabled by default.

Instances have one method in addition to those of ZipFile objects:

writepy(pathname, basename='', filterfunc=None)

Search for files *.py and add the corresponding file to the archive.

If the optimize parameter to PyZipFile was not given or -1, the corresponding file is a *.pyc file, compiling if necessary.

If the optimize parameter to PyZipFile was 0, 1 or 2, only files with that optimization level (see compile()) are added to the archive, compiling if necessary.

If pathname is a file, the filename must end with .py, and just the (corresponding *.pyc) file is added at the top level (no path information). If pathname is a file that does not end with .py, a RuntimeError will be raised. If it is a directory, and the directory is not a package directory, then all the files *.pyc are added at the top level. If the directory is a package directory, then all *.pyc are added under the package name as a file path, and if any subdirectories are package directories, all of these are added recursively in sorted order.

basename is intended for internal use only.

filterfunc, if given, must be a function taking a single string argument. It will be passed each path (including each individual full file path) before it is added to the archive. If filterfunc returns a false value, the path will not be added, and if it is a directory its contents will be ignored. For example, if our test files are all either in test directories or start with the string test_, we can use a filterfunc to exclude them:

>>> zf = PyZipFile('myprog.zip')
>>> def notests(s):
...     fn = os.path.basename(s)
...     return (not (fn == 'test' or fn.startswith('test_')))
>>> zf.writepy('myprog', filterfunc=notests)

The writepy() method makes archives with file names like this:

string.pyc                   # Top level name
test/__init__.pyc            # Package directory
test/testall.pyc             # Module test.testall
test/bogus/__init__.pyc      # Subpackage directory
test/bogus/myfile.pyc        # Submodule test.bogus.myfile

3.4 新版功能: The filterfunc parameter.

在 3.6.2 版更改: The pathname parameter accepts a path-like object.

在 3.7 版更改: Recursion sorts directory entries.

ZipInfo Objects

Instances of the ZipInfo class are returned by the getinfo() and infolist() methods of ZipFile objects. Each object stores information about a single member of the ZIP archive.

There is one classmethod to make a ZipInfo instance for a filesystem file:

classmethod ZipInfo.from_file(filename, arcname=None)

Construct a ZipInfo instance for a file on the filesystem, in preparation for adding it to a zip file.

filename should be the path to a file or directory on the filesystem.

If arcname is specified, it is used as the name within the archive. If arcname is not specified, the name will be the same as filename, but with any drive letter and leading path separators removed.

3.6 新版功能.

在 3.6.2 版更改: The filename parameter accepts a path-like object.

Instances have the following methods and attributes:

ZipInfo.is_dir()

Return True if this archive member is a directory.

This uses the entry's name: directories should always end with /.

3.6 新版功能.

ZipInfo.filename

Name of the file in the archive.

ZipInfo.date_time

The time and date of the last modification to the archive member. This is a tuple of six values:

索引
0 Year (>= 1980)
1 Month (one-based)
2 Day of month (one-based)
3 Hours (zero-based)
4 Minutes (zero-based)
5 Seconds (zero-based)

注解

The ZIP file format does not support timestamps before 1980.

ZipInfo.compress_type

Type of compression for the archive member.

ZipInfo.comment

Comment for the individual archive member as a bytes object.

ZipInfo.extra

Expansion field data. The PKZIP Application Note contains some comments on the internal structure of the data contained in this bytes object.

ZipInfo.create_system

System which created ZIP archive.

ZipInfo.create_version

PKZIP version which created ZIP archive.

ZipInfo.extract_version

PKZIP version needed to extract archive.

ZipInfo.reserved

必须为零。

ZipInfo.flag_bits

ZIP 标志位。

ZipInfo.volume

Volume number of file header.

ZipInfo.internal_attr

Internal attributes.

ZipInfo.external_attr

External file attributes.

ZipInfo.header_offset

Byte offset to the file header.

ZipInfo.CRC

CRC-32 of the uncompressed file.

ZipInfo.compress_size

Size of the compressed data.

ZipInfo.file_size

Size of the uncompressed file.

命令行界面

The zipfile module provides a simple command-line interface to interact with ZIP archives.

If you want to create a new ZIP archive, specify its name after the -c option and then list the filename(s) that should be included:

$ python -m zipfile -c monty.zip spam.txt eggs.txt

Passing a directory is also acceptable:

$ python -m zipfile -c monty.zip life-of-brian_1979/

If you want to extract a ZIP archive into the specified directory, use the -e option:

$ python -m zipfile -e monty.zip target-dir/

For a list of the files in a ZIP archive, use the -l option:

$ python -m zipfile -l monty.zip

Command-line options

-l <zipfile>
--list <zipfile>

List files in a zipfile.

-c <zipfile> <source1> ... <sourceN>
--create <zipfile> <source1> ... <sourceN>

Create zipfile from source files.

-e <zipfile> <output_dir>
--extract <zipfile> <output_dir>

Extract zipfile into target directory.

-t <zipfile>
--test <zipfile>

Test whether the zipfile is valid or not.