functools --- 高阶函数和可调用对象上的操作

源代码: Lib/

functools 模块应用于高阶函数,即——参数或(和)返回值为其他函数的函数。通常来说,此模块的功能适用于所有可调用对象。

functools 模块定义了以下函数:


将(旧式的)比较函数转换为新式的 key function . 在类似于 sorted()min()max()heapq.nlargest()heapq.nsmallest()itertools.groupby() 等函数的`key`参数中使用。此函数主要用于转换Python 2程序至新版的转换工具,从而保持对比较函数的兼容。

比较函数意为一个可调用对象,该对象接受两个参数并比较它们,结果为小于则返回一个负数,相等则返回零,大于则返回一个正数。key function则是一个接受一个参数,并返回另一个用以排序的值的可调用对象。


sorted(iterable, key=cmp_to_key(locale.strcoll))  # locale-aware sort order

有关排序示例和简要排序教程,请参阅 排序指南

3.2 新版功能.

@functools.lru_cache(maxsize=128, typed=False)



不同模式的参数可能被视为不同从而产生多个缓存项,例如, f(a=1, b=2)f(b=2, a=1) 因其参数顺序不同,可能会被缓存两次。

如果*maxsize*设置为``None``,LRU功能将被禁用且缓存数量无上限。 maxsize 设置为2的幂时可获得最佳性能。

如果*typed*设置为true,不同类型的函数参数将被分别缓存。例如, f(3)f(3.0) 将被视为不同而分别缓存。

To help measure the effectiveness of the cache and tune the maxsize parameter, the wrapped function is instrumented with a cache_info() function that returns a named tuple showing hits, misses, maxsize and currsize. In a multi-threaded environment, the hits and misses are approximate.

The decorator also provides a cache_clear() function for clearing or invalidating the cache.

The original underlying function is accessible through the __wrapped__ attribute. This is useful for introspection, for bypassing the cache, or for rewrapping the function with a different cache.

An LRU (least recently used) cache works best when the most recent calls are the best predictors of upcoming calls (for example, the most popular articles on a news server tend to change each day). The cache's size limit assures that the cache does not grow without bound on long-running processes such as web servers.

In general, the LRU cache should only be used when you want to reuse previously computed values. Accordingly, it doesn't make sense to cache functions with side-effects, functions that need to create distinct mutable objects on each call, or impure functions such as time() or random().

Example of an LRU cache for static web content:

def get_pep(num):
    'Retrieve text of a Python Enhancement Proposal'
    resource = '' % num
        with urllib.request.urlopen(resource) as s:
    except urllib.error.HTTPError:
        return 'Not Found'

>>> for n in 8, 290, 308, 320, 8, 218, 320, 279, 289, 320, 9991:
...     pep = get_pep(n)
...     print(n, len(pep))

>>> get_pep.cache_info()
CacheInfo(hits=3, misses=8, maxsize=32, currsize=8)

Example of efficiently computing Fibonacci numbers using a cache to implement a dynamic programming technique:

def fib(n):
    if n < 2:
        return n
    return fib(n-1) + fib(n-2)

>>> [fib(n) for n in range(16)]
[0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610]

>>> fib.cache_info()
CacheInfo(hits=28, misses=16, maxsize=None, currsize=16)

3.2 新版功能.

在 3.3 版更改: Added the typed option.


Given a class defining one or more rich comparison ordering methods, this class decorator supplies the rest. This simplifies the effort involved in specifying all of the possible rich comparison operations:

The class must define one of __lt__(), __le__(), __gt__(), or __ge__(). In addition, the class should supply an __eq__() method.


class Student:
    def _is_valid_operand(self, other):
        return (hasattr(other, "lastname") and
                hasattr(other, "firstname"))
    def __eq__(self, other):
        if not self._is_valid_operand(other):
            return NotImplemented
        return ((self.lastname.lower(), self.firstname.lower()) ==
                (other.lastname.lower(), other.firstname.lower()))
    def __lt__(self, other):
        if not self._is_valid_operand(other):
            return NotImplemented
        return ((self.lastname.lower(), self.firstname.lower()) <
                (other.lastname.lower(), other.firstname.lower()))


While this decorator makes it easy to create well behaved totally ordered types, it does come at the cost of slower execution and more complex stack traces for the derived comparison methods. If performance benchmarking indicates this is a bottleneck for a given application, implementing all six rich comparison methods instead is likely to provide an easy speed boost.

3.2 新版功能.

在 3.4 版更改: Returning NotImplemented from the underlying comparison function for unrecognised types is now supported.

functools.partial(func, *args, **keywords)

Return a new partial object which when called will behave like func called with the positional arguments args and keyword arguments keywords. If more arguments are supplied to the call, they are appended to args. If additional keyword arguments are supplied, they extend and override keywords. Roughly equivalent to:

def partial(func, *args, **keywords):
    def newfunc(*fargs, **fkeywords):
        newkeywords = keywords.copy()
        return func(*args, *fargs, **newkeywords)
    newfunc.func = func
    newfunc.args = args
    newfunc.keywords = keywords
    return newfunc

The partial() is used for partial function application which "freezes" some portion of a function's arguments and/or keywords resulting in a new object with a simplified signature. For example, partial() can be used to create a callable that behaves like the int() function where the base argument defaults to two:

>>> from functools import partial
>>> basetwo = partial(int, base=2)
>>> basetwo.__doc__ = 'Convert base 2 string to an int.'
>>> basetwo('10010')
class functools.partialmethod(func, *args, **keywords)

Return a new partialmethod descriptor which behaves like partial except that it is designed to be used as a method definition rather than being directly callable.

func must be a descriptor or a callable (objects which are both, like normal functions, are handled as descriptors).

When func is a descriptor (such as a normal Python function, classmethod(), staticmethod(), abstractmethod() or another instance of partialmethod), calls to __get__ are delegated to the underlying descriptor, and an appropriate partial object returned as the result.

When func is a non-descriptor callable, an appropriate bound method is created dynamically. This behaves like a normal Python function when used as a method: the self argument will be inserted as the first positional argument, even before the args and keywords supplied to the partialmethod constructor.


>>> class Cell(object):
...     def __init__(self):
...         self._alive = False
...     @property
...     def alive(self):
...         return self._alive
...     def set_state(self, state):
...         self._alive = bool(state)
...     set_alive = partialmethod(set_state, True)
...     set_dead = partialmethod(set_state, False)
>>> c = Cell()
>>> c.alive
>>> c.set_alive()
>>> c.alive

3.4 新版功能.

functools.reduce(function, iterable[, initializer])

Apply function of two arguments cumulatively to the items of sequence, from left to right, so as to reduce the sequence to a single value. For example, reduce(lambda x, y: x+y, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]) calculates ((((1+2)+3)+4)+5). The left argument, x, is the accumulated value and the right argument, y, is the update value from the sequence. If the optional initializer is present, it is placed before the items of the sequence in the calculation, and serves as a default when the sequence is empty. If initializer is not given and sequence contains only one item, the first item is returned.


def reduce(function, iterable, initializer=None):
    it = iter(iterable)
    if initializer is None:
        value = next(it)
        value = initializer
    for element in it:
        value = function(value, element)
    return value

Transform a function into a single-dispatch generic function.

To define a generic function, decorate it with the @singledispatch decorator. Note that the dispatch happens on the type of the first argument, create your function accordingly:

>>> from functools import singledispatch
>>> @singledispatch
... def fun(arg, verbose=False):
...     if verbose:
...         print("Let me just say,", end=" ")
...     print(arg)

To add overloaded implementations to the function, use the register() attribute of the generic function. It is a decorator. For functions annotated with types, the decorator will infer the type of the first argument automatically:

>>> @fun.register
... def _(arg: int, verbose=False):
...     if verbose:
...         print("Strength in numbers, eh?", end=" ")
...     print(arg)
>>> @fun.register
... def _(arg: list, verbose=False):
...     if verbose:
...         print("Enumerate this:")
...     for i, elem in enumerate(arg):
...         print(i, elem)

For code which doesn't use type annotations, the appropriate type argument can be passed explicitly to the decorator itself:

>>> @fun.register(complex)
... def _(arg, verbose=False):
...     if verbose:
...         print("Better than complicated.", end=" ")
...     print(arg.real, arg.imag)

To enable registering lambdas and pre-existing functions, the register() attribute can be used in a functional form:

>>> def nothing(arg, verbose=False):
...     print("Nothing.")
>>> fun.register(type(None), nothing)

The register() attribute returns the undecorated function which enables decorator stacking, pickling, as well as creating unit tests for each variant independently:

>>> @fun.register(float)
... @fun.register(Decimal)
... def fun_num(arg, verbose=False):
...     if verbose:
...         print("Half of your number:", end=" ")
...     print(arg / 2)
>>> fun_num is fun

When called, the generic function dispatches on the type of the first argument:

>>> fun("Hello, world.")
Hello, world.
>>> fun("test.", verbose=True)
Let me just say, test.
>>> fun(42, verbose=True)
Strength in numbers, eh? 42
>>> fun(['spam', 'spam', 'eggs', 'spam'], verbose=True)
Enumerate this:
0 spam
1 spam
2 eggs
3 spam
>>> fun(None)
>>> fun(1.23)

Where there is no registered implementation for a specific type, its method resolution order is used to find a more generic implementation. The original function decorated with @singledispatch is registered for the base object type, which means it is used if no better implementation is found.

To check which implementation will the generic function choose for a given type, use the dispatch() attribute:

>>> fun.dispatch(float)
<function fun_num at 0x1035a2840>
>>> fun.dispatch(dict)    # note: default implementation
<function fun at 0x103fe0000>

To access all registered implementations, use the read-only registry attribute:

>>> fun.registry.keys()
dict_keys([<class 'NoneType'>, <class 'int'>, <class 'object'>,
          <class 'decimal.Decimal'>, <class 'list'>,
          <class 'float'>])
>>> fun.registry[float]
<function fun_num at 0x1035a2840>
>>> fun.registry[object]
<function fun at 0x103fe0000>

3.4 新版功能.

在 3.7 版更改: The register() attribute supports using type annotations.

functools.update_wrapper(wrapper, wrapped, assigned=WRAPPER_ASSIGNMENTS, updated=WRAPPER_UPDATES)

Update a wrapper function to look like the wrapped function. The optional arguments are tuples to specify which attributes of the original function are assigned directly to the matching attributes on the wrapper function and which attributes of the wrapper function are updated with the corresponding attributes from the original function. The default values for these arguments are the module level constants WRAPPER_ASSIGNMENTS (which assigns to the wrapper function's __module__, __name__, __qualname__, __annotations__ and __doc__, the documentation string) and WRAPPER_UPDATES (which updates the wrapper function's __dict__, i.e. the instance dictionary).

To allow access to the original function for introspection and other purposes (e.g. bypassing a caching decorator such as lru_cache()), this function automatically adds a __wrapped__ attribute to the wrapper that refers to the function being wrapped.

The main intended use for this function is in decorator functions which wrap the decorated function and return the wrapper. If the wrapper function is not updated, the metadata of the returned function will reflect the wrapper definition rather than the original function definition, which is typically less than helpful.

update_wrapper() may be used with callables other than functions. Any attributes named in assigned or updated that are missing from the object being wrapped are ignored (i.e. this function will not attempt to set them on the wrapper function). AttributeError is still raised if the wrapper function itself is missing any attributes named in updated.

3.2 新版功能: Automatic addition of the __wrapped__ attribute.

3.2 新版功能: Copying of the __annotations__ attribute by default.

在 3.2 版更改: Missing attributes no longer trigger an AttributeError.

在 3.4 版更改: The __wrapped__ attribute now always refers to the wrapped function, even if that function defined a __wrapped__ attribute. (see bpo-17482)

@functools.wraps(wrapped, assigned=WRAPPER_ASSIGNMENTS, updated=WRAPPER_UPDATES)

This is a convenience function for invoking update_wrapper() as a function decorator when defining a wrapper function. It is equivalent to partial(update_wrapper, wrapped=wrapped, assigned=assigned, updated=updated). For example:

>>> from functools import wraps
>>> def my_decorator(f):
...     @wraps(f)
...     def wrapper(*args, **kwds):
...         print('Calling decorated function')
...         return f(*args, **kwds)
...     return wrapper
>>> @my_decorator
... def example():
...     """Docstring"""
...     print('Called example function')
>>> example()
Calling decorated function
Called example function
>>> example.__name__
>>> example.__doc__

Without the use of this decorator factory, the name of the example function would have been 'wrapper', and the docstring of the original example() would have been lost.

partial Objects

partial objects are callable objects created by partial(). They have three read-only attributes:


A callable object or function. Calls to the partial object will be forwarded to func with new arguments and keywords.


The leftmost positional arguments that will be prepended to the positional arguments provided to a partial object call.


The keyword arguments that will be supplied when the partial object is called.

partial objects are like function objects in that they are callable, weak referencable, and can have attributes. There are some important differences. For instance, the __name__ and __doc__ attributes are not created automatically. Also, partial objects defined in classes behave like static methods and do not transform into bound methods during instance attribute look-up.